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Demystifying Sustainability Reporting: A Guide to Top Standards

The growing focus on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues has made sustainability reporting a critical aspect of modern business. But with a plethora of reporting standards and acronyms flying around, navigating this landscape can be overwhelming. This blog post aims to be your one-stop guide, unpacking the top sustainability reporting standards you need to know about. 

Unveiling the Top 6 Sustainability Reporting Standards

A clear comparison table can be a great way to analyze the key aspects of each standard. Here’s one to help you see the differences: 

StandardFocus Area Target Audience Benefits Example 
CSRD Environmental impact, social responsibility, governance practices Large companies in the EU Increased transparency, improved stakeholder engagement, potential competitive advantage in the EU market Unilever 
ISSB Financially material sustainability topics Investors Improved comparability of disclosures, enhanced investor confidence Rolls-Royce 
GRI Economic, environmental, and social impacts (modular) Businesses of all sizes Flexibility, established framework for comprehensive reporting Infosys 
TCFD Climate-related financial risks and opportunities Investors, lenders, insurers Improved risk management, enhanced investor understanding of climate change’s financial implications Bank of America 
SASB Industry-specific financially material sustainability topics Investors (industry-specific insights) Deeper understanding of industry-specific sustainability risks and opportunities Freeport-McMoRan 
CDP Climate change, water security, deforestation Investors, stakeholders Improved environmental stewardship transparency Nestle 
While the table provides a high-level comparison, let’s delve deeper into some key points: 

1. The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) 

The CSRD is a game-changer for sustainability reporting in the European Union. It mandates large companies operating in the EU to disclose information about their sustainability performance, starting from 2023 (depending on company size and other factors). This directive aims to create transparency around a company’s impact on the environment and society, allowing investors and stakeholders to make informed decisions. 


Unilever, a multinational consumer goods company headquartered in the UK, is subject to the CSRD due to its size and operations in the EU. Their 2023 sustainability report details their progress on using recycled plastic in packaging, reducing greenhouse gas emissions across their supply chain, and promoting gender equality in their workforce.

2. The International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) 

The ISSB, established in 2022, operates under the IFRS Foundation (the body behind International Financial Reporting Standards). Its primary focus is developing a comprehensive global baseline for sustainability disclosures. The ISSB aims to bridge the gap between financial statements and sustainability reporting, ensuring investors receive a holistic view of a company’s performance. 


Engine giant Rolls-Royce, headquartered in the UK, is already implementing climate-related disclosure recommendations aligned with the soon-to-be-released ISSB standards. Their 2023 financial report includes a section on their plans for transitioning to cleaner aviation technologies and the potential financial implications of carbon pricing regulations.

3. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) 

The GRI is a pioneer in sustainability reporting, offering a widely adopted framework for companies to report on their economic, environmental, and social impacts. GRI Standards provide a modular approach, consisting of three sets (economic, environmental, and social) of 34 topic-specific standards. Companies can choose the standards most relevant to their operations, ensuring their reports are comprehensive and tailored. 


Infosys, an Indian multinational information technology company, utilizes the GRI Standards for their sustainability reporting. Their report details their water conservation initiatives, employee training programs on ethical sourcing, and their commitment to renewable energy sources.

4. FSB Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) 

The TCFD, established by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), provides a framework for companies to disclose climate-related financial risks and opportunities. These risks can originate from factors like extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and carbon pricing regulations. TCFD recommendations help ensure companies are prepared for future climate scenarios and their impact on financial performance. 


Bank of America, a leading US financial institution, actively uses the TCFD framework. Their report outlines their approach to assessing climate-related risks like extreme weather events on their loan portfolios and investments in coastal properties.

5. SASB Standards (Sustainability Accounting Standards Board) 

SASB, now integrated under the Value Reporting Foundation with the ISSB, focuses on industry-specific sustainability accounting standards. These standards define financially material sustainability topics that can impact a company’s financial performance. By adopting SASB standards, companies provide investors with industry-specific insights into their sustainability risks and opportunities. 


Freeport-McMoRan, a US-based mining company, leverages the SASB standards for the extractive metals and minerals sector. Their report details their water management practices to minimize water usage and wastewater discharge, considering the financial risks associated with water scarcity in their operating regions.

6. CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project) 

CDP is a global disclosure system focusing on climate change, water security, and deforestation. Companies submit CDP questionnaires to report their environmental impact and strategies for managing related risks. This information is then made publicly available, allowing investors and stakeholders to assess a company’s environmental stewardship. 


Nestlé, a Swiss multinational food and beverage company, actively participates in CDP’s disclosure system. Their response details their efforts to reduce water usage throughout their supply chain, particularly in regions facing water stress. They also outline their strategies for sustainable sourcing of agricultural ingredients.

Choosing the Right Standard 

The “right” reporting standard depends on your company’s specific needs and industry. Here are some factors to consider when making your choice: 

Get Expert Guidance: 

Feeling overwhelmed by navigating sustainability reporting standards? Don’t be! We’re here to help. 

Contact our sustainability experts:

Our team can assist you in developing a customized sustainability reporting strategy and ensure your company meets the highest standards.

Let’s build a more sustainable future together! Share your thoughts and questions in the comments below. What are your biggest challenges with sustainability reporting? 

By understanding these top reporting standards and applying them in your company, you can demonstrate your company’s commitment to ESG principles and gain a competitive edge in the evolving business landscape. 


Sustainability reporting is no longer a niche practice but a core business function. Understanding the top reporting standards helps companies present a transparent and comprehensive picture of their ESG performance. By adopting relevant standards, companies can attract investors, build trust with stakeholders, and gain a competitive edge in the evolving landscape of sustainable business practices. 

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